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Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) occurs when arteries in the legs become narrowed or dogged with plaque (cholesterol) – referred to as atherosclerosis – reducing blood flow to the legs. PVD can lead to leg pain when walking (claudication), disability, and even amputation. Blocked leg arteries can be a red flag that other arteries, including those in the heart and brain, may also be blocked—increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke.

The chance of having PVD increases with age. People over age 50, especially men, have a higher risk for PVD, but the risk is increased if a person:

  • Smokes, or used to smoke
  • Has diabetes
  • Has high blood pressure
  • Has abnormal blood cholesterol levels
  • Is of African American ethnicity
  • Has had heart disease, a heart attack or a stroke
  • Has kidney disease involving hemodialysis

Peripheral vascular disease is also likely to be a sign of a more widespread accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries. This condition may be reducing blood flow to the heart and brain, as well as the legs.

Peripheral vascular disease can often be improved by quitting tobacco, exercising and eating a healthy diet.

Signs & Symptoms

While many people with PVD do not experience obvious symptoms, others with the disease may have:

  • Painful cramping in one or both hips, thighs or calf muscles after certain activities, such as walking or climbing stairs (claudication)
    • Claudication symptoms include muscle pain or cramping in legs or arms that’s triggered by activity, such as walking, but disappears after a few minutes of rest. The location of the pain depends on the location of the clogged or narrowed artery. Calf pain is most common. The severity of claudication varies widely, from mild discomfort to debilitating pain.
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Coldness in lower leg or foot, especially when compared with the other side
  • Sores on the toes, feet or legs that won’t heal
  • A change in the color of legs
  • Hair loss or slower hair growth on feet and legs
  • Slower growth of toenails
  • Shiny skin on legs
  • No pulse or a weak pulse in legs or feet

If peripheral vascular disease progresses, pain may even occur when resting or lying down. It may be severe enough to disrupt sleep.


Some of the tests a Deborah Specialty Physician may rely on to diagnose peripheral vascular disease are:

  • Physical exam
  • Ankle-brachial index (ABI)
  • Ultrasound
  • Angiography
  • Blood tests